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Quantifying Contact with the Environment: Behaviors of Young Children in Accra, Ghana

Authors: Peter Teunis, Heather Reese, Claire A. Null, Habib Yakubu, Christine L. Moe

Abstract: To better understand the risks of exposure for young children to fecal contamination in their environment, we systematically characterized and quantified behaviors of 154 children, 0-5 years old, in four high-density, low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A repertoire of six different activities and five different compartments (categories of locations within the household) was developed, and about 500 hours of ordered structured observations of activities and locations of individual children were collected. READ MORE

Quantification of exposure to fecal contamination in open drains in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana

Authors: Stephanie R. Gretsch, Joseph A. Ampofo, Kelly K. Baker, Julie Clennon, Clair A. Null, Dorothy Peprah, Heather Reese, Katharine Robb, Peter Teunis, Nii Wellington, Habib Yakubu, Christine L. Moe

Abstract: In low-income countries, rapid urbanization adds pressure to already stressed water and sanitation systems that are critical to the health of communities. Drainage networks, designed for stormwater but commonly used for disposing of waste, are rarely covered completely, allowing residents to easily contact their contents. This study used spatial mapping, documentation of physical drain characteristics, microbiological analysis of drain samples, and behavioral observation to comprehensively examine drains as a route of exposure to fecal contamination in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. READ MORE

Public toilets and their customers in low-income Accra, Ghana

Authors: Dorothy PeprahKelly K BakerChristine MoeKatharine RobbNii WellingtonHabib Yakubuand Clair Null

Abstract: Public pay-per-use toilets are the only alternative to open defecation for a significant number of people in many low-income, urban neighbourhoods where insecure tenure, space constraints, and/or cost make private sanitation facilities unfeasible. This study explores public toilet use, characteristics of public toilet customers and possible improvements to public toilet facilities in four neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana, the country with the highest reliance on shared sanitation facilities globally. READ MORE